Heritage Speaker ~~ “a student who is raised in a home where a non-English language is spoken, who speaks or merely understands the heritage language and who is to some degree bilingual in English and the heritage language” (Valdés, 2001)

Heritage Speakers of Spanish


  • Brecht, R. D., & Ingold, C. W. (2002). Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the United States. Eric Digest
  • Carmona, J. A. (2007). Heritage Speakers: helping Young Latinos Learn Spanish. Retrieved from AmericanLatino.com: http://www.americanlatino.com
  • Carreira, M. (2013). The Vitality of Spanish in the United States. Heritage Language Journal.
  • Cohen, L. F. (1998). Interfaces Between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Elola, Idoia, Mikulski, Ariana. Heritage and Foreign Language Learner Use of the Spanish Subjunctive in Advice, Heritage Language Journal, 10(1), Summer 2013
  • Hancock, Zennia. Heritage Spanish Speakers' Language Learning Strategies, Eric Digest, EDO-FL-02-06, October 2002
  • Krashen, S. (2000). Bilingual Education, the Acquisition of English, and the Retention and Loss of Spanish. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.
  • Lynch, A. (2002). The Relationship between Second and heritage Language Acquisition: Notes on Research and Theory Building. (S.N. America, Interviewer)
  • Mahn, H. (2013). Vygotsky and Second Language Acquisition. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics.
  • Mitchell, R., & Myles, F. (2004). Second Language Learning Theories, Second Edition. UK.
  • Montrul, Silvina. How "Native" Are Heritage Speakers?, Heritage Language Journal, 10 (2), Fall, 2013
  • Montrul, Silvia. Introduction: Spanish Heritage Speakers: Bridging Formal Linguistics, Psycholinguistics and Pedagogy, Heritage Language Journal, Spring 2011
  • Ornstein, A. H. (1988). Curriculum: Foundations Principles and Issues. Philosophical Foundation of Curriculum. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Peyton, Joy Kreeft, Lewelling, Vickie W., Winke, Paula. Spanish for Spanish Speakers, Developing Dual Language Proficiency, Eric Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistic, Eric Digest, EDO-FL-01-09, December 2001
  • Potowski, Kim. Experiences of Spanish Heritage Speakers in University Foreign Language Courses and Implications for Teacher Training, Association of Departments of Foreign Languages, 2002
  • Roca, Ana. Spanish for U.S. Hispanic Bilinguals in Higher Education, Eric Digest, November 1992
  • Scott, S. (2013). Sociocultural Theory. www.education.com
  • Tallon, Michael. Heritage Speakers of Spanish and Foreign Language Anxiety: A Pilot Study, Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, Vol. 15, No. 1, Summer 2011
  • Valdes, G. (2001). Heritage Language Students: Profiles and Possibilities. The Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems.
  • Winke, Paula. (2002). Selecting Materials to Teach Spanish to Spanish Speakers. Eric Digest.
  • Zennia, H. (2002). Heritage Spanish Speakers' Language Learning Strategies. Eric Digest.