Heritage Speaker ~~ “a student who is raised in a home where a non-English language is spoken, who speaks or merely understands the heritage language and who is to some degree bilingual in English and the heritage language” (Valdés, 2001)

Heritage Speakers of Spanish

      Impressions - According to existing research, what is needed in this field?
  • Encourage further research on HL-FL interactions and student performance in courses such as literature and linguistics.

  • Further research is needed on how HSS learn Spanish in academic settings.

  • Further research is needed on the different levels of HSS.

  • No matter how small the population of HSS, they need specialized instruction and materials that build on their existing language skills and cultural knowledge.

  • Need an educational system that is responsive to HSS

  • Further research is needed in social and cultural contexts, assessment methods, effective teaching, learning resources, and public policies related to HSS

  • A national infrastructure is needed to develop collaboration among existing Spanish language educators